4 Wheel Vehicles EV, HEV, PHEV
Hybrid technology seems to be one of the fastest growing technologies in the automobile industry today (although the technology itself has been around for a considerable amount of time, dating as back as 1665). It seems like it would continue to grow as consumers are beginning to shy away from high fuel prices, becoming more environmental aware or just plain obsessed with new technology.
Also, the hybrid market is increasing rapidly as there are more manufacturers introducing new and wider range of models into the market, which means consumers are given more option (and don’t we all love to have an option).
We all admit that Toyota Hybrid made a big success in the market. This is because the market wants to have cars with less CO2 Emission and each government is making the regulations to preserve environment. Under this market situation, Plug-In EV comes out to the market as an intermediate process before EV shows up. However, it is also a fact that the automaker companies are preparing to show EV without any intermediate process.
E-BUS Battery manufacturer Enertechint
A battery electric bus is a bus that is driven by an electric motor and obtains energy from an on-board battery. Many trolleybuses use batteries as an auxiliary or emergency power source.
EV Battery manufacturer Enertechint
An electric-vehicle battery (EVB) or traction battery is a battery used to power the propulsion of battery electric vehicles (BEVs). Vehicle batteries are usually a secondary (rechargeable) battery. Traction batteries are used in forklifts, electric Golf carts, riding floor scrubbers, electric motorcycles, full-size electric cars, trucks, vans, and other electric vehicles.
Electric-vehicle batteries differ from starting, lighting, and ignition (SLI) batteries because they are designed to give power over sustained periods of time. Deep-cycle batteries are used instead of SLI batteries for these applications. Traction batteries must be designed with a high ampere-hour capacity. Batteries for electric vehicles are characterized by their relatively high power-to-weight ratio, energy-to-weight ratio and energy density; smaller, lighter batteries reduce the weight of the vehicle and improve its performance. Compared to liquid fuels, most current battery technologies have much lower specific energy, and this often impacts the maximal all-electric range of the vehicles. However, metal-air batteries have high specific energy because the cathode is provided by the surrounding oxygen in the air. Rechargeable batteries used in electric vehicles include lead–acid ("flooded", deep-cycle, and VRLA), NiCd, nickel–metal hydride, lithium-ion, Li-ion polymer, and, less commonly, zinc–air and molten-salt batteries. The amount of electricity (i.e. electric charge) stored in batteries is measured in ampere hours or in coulombs, with the total energy often measured in watt hours.
The battery makes up a substantial cost of BEVs, which unlike for fossil-fueled cars, profoundly manifests itself as a price of range. In the case of the MiEV 2012 model, the price tag and advertised range is close to proportional between two versions with a different battery, giving the (false) impression that the battery makes up close to 100% of the cost (95% for the higher-priced version). However, some of the price difference comes from extra features in the higher-priced version, plus an unknown price premium, making such a retail price comparison a very bad indicator of actual cost of battery capacity, but nevertheless serves to quantify battery capacity as a premium feature. The few electric cars with over 500 km of range (including Tesla Model S with the 85 kWh battery), are firmly in the luxury segment, as of 2015. Since the late 1990s, advances in battery technology have been driven by demands for portable electronics, like laptop computers and mobile phones. The BEV marketplace has reaped the benefits of these advances. However, Mitsubishi ascribes the price reduction of its 2012 model MiEV, compared to the 2011 model, to "a dramatic reduction in the cost of batteries". The cost of electric-vehicle batteries has been reduced by more than 35% from 2008 to 2014.
Rechargeable traction batteries are routinely used all day and fast-charged all night. Forklifts, for instance, are usually discharged and recharged every 24 hours of the work week.
The predicted market for automobile traction batteries is over $37 billion in 2020.
On an energy basis, the price of electricity to run an EV is a small fraction of the cost of liquid fuel needed to produce an equivalent amount of energy (energy efficiency). The cost of replacing the batteries dominates the operating costs.