Electric Vehicles

Electric Vehicle & Environment

Li-Ion EV Battery Manufacturer :: Enertechint

Electric Vehicle Market

Many people believe that the most important oil-related global disaster will be occured when oil runs out.
Clearly, there is only limit oil we can pull out of the ground (or the tar sands, oil shale, etc.).

If we do not have a suitable replacement for oil in place by the time it becomes impossibly rare and expensive, society could collapse completely.

As fuel price has been increased continuously, so have car buyers tendencies to buy smaller and more fuel efficient vehicles.
Which means its really easy to see where things are going. More hybrid cars and SUVs are coming out every year. Consumers are moving the car companies away from the bigger is better mentality and into the more efficient is better.

Overview of Electric Vehicles

An electric vehicle, also called an electric drive vehicle, uses one or more electric motors or traction motors for propulsion. An electric vehicle may be powered through a collector system by electricity from off-vehicle sources, or may be self-contained with a battery, solar panels or a generator to convert fuel to electricity.[1] EVs include road and rail vehicles, surface and underwater vessels, electric aircraft and electric spacecraft.

EVs first came into existence in the mid-19th century, when electricity was among the preferred methods for motor vehicle propulsion, providing a level of comfort and ease of operation that could not be achieved by the gasoline cars of the time. The internal combustion engine has been the dominant propulsion method for motor vehicles for almost 100 years, but electric power has remained commonplace in other vehicle types, such as trains and smaller vehicles of all types.

In the 21st century, EVs saw a resurgence due to technological developments and an increased focus on renewable energy. Government incentives to increase adoptions were introduced, including in the United States[2] and the European Union.[3]

EV Battery 

An electric-vehicle battery (EV Battery) or traction battery is a battery used to power the propulsion of battery electric vehicles (BEVs). Vehicle batteries are usually a secondary (rechargeable) battery. Traction batteries are used in forklifts, electric Golf carts, riding floor scrubberselectric motorcycles, full-size electric cars, trucks, vans, and other electric vehicles.

Electric-vehicle EV batteries differ from starting, lighting, and ignition (SLI) batteries because they are designed to give power over sustained periods of time. Deep-cycle batteries are used instead of SLI batteries for these applications. Traction batteries must be designed with a high ampere-hour capacity. EV Battery are characterized by their relatively high power-to-weight ratioenergy-to-weight ratio and energy density; smaller, lighter batteries reduce the weight of the vehicle and improve its performance. Compared to liquid fuels, most current battery technologies have much lower specific energy, and this often impacts the maximal all-electric range of the vehicles. However, metal-air batteries have high specific energy because the cathode is provided by the surrounding oxygen in the air. Rechargeable batteries used in electric vehicles include lead–acid ("flooded", deep-cycle, and VRLA), NiCdnickel–metal hydridelithium-ionLi-ion polymer, and, less commonly, zinc–air and molten-salt batteries. The amount of electricity (i.e. electric charge) stored in batteries is measured in ampere hours or in coulombs, with the total energy often measured in watt hours.

The battery makes up a substantial cost of BEVs, which unlike for fossil-fueled cars, profoundly manifests itself as a price of range. In the case of the MiEV 2012 model, the price tag and advertised range is close to proportional between two versions with a different battery,[1] giving the (false) impression that the battery makes up close to 100% of the cost (95% for the higher-priced version). However, some of the price difference comes from extra features in the higher-priced version, plus an unknown price premium, making such a retail price comparison a very bad indicator of actual cost of battery capacity, but nevertheless serves to quantify battery capacity as a premium feature. The few electric cars with over 500 km of range (including Tesla Model S with the 85 kWh battery), are firmly in the luxury segment, as of 2015. Since the late 1990s, advances in battery technology have been driven by demands for portable electronics, like laptop computers and mobile phones. The BEV marketplace has reaped the benefits of these advances. However, Mitsubishi ascribes the price reduction of its 2012 model MiEV, compared to the 2011 model, to "a dramatic reduction in the cost of batteries".[1] The cost of EV battery has been reduced by more than 35% from 2008 to 2014.[2]

Rechargeable traction batteries are routinely used all day and fast-charged all night. Forklifts, for instance, are usually discharged and recharged every 24 hours of the work week.

The predicted market for automobile traction batteries is over $37 billion in 2020.[3]

On an energy basis, the price of electricity to run an EV is a small fraction of the cost of liquid fuel needed to produce an equivalent amount of energy (energy efficiency). The cost of replacing the batteries dominates the operating costs.[4]



Lithium-ion (and similar lithium polymer) batteries, widely known via their use in laptops and consumer electronics, dominate the most recent group of EVs in development. The traditional lithium-ion chemistry involves a lithium cobalt oxide cathode and a graphite anode. This yields cells with an impressive 200+ Wh/kg energy density[6] and good power density, and 80 to 90% charge/discharge efficiency. The downsides of traditional lithium-ion batteries include short cycle lives (hundreds to a few thousand charge cycles) and significant degradation with age. The cathode is also somewhat toxic. Also, traditional lithium-ion batteries can pose a fire safety risk if punctured or charged improperly.[7] These laptop cells don't accept or supply charge when cold, and so heaters can be necessary in some climates to warm them. The maturity of this technology is moderate. The Tesla Roadster uses "blades" of traditional lithium-ion "laptop battery" cells that can be replaced individually as needed.

Most other EVs are utilizing new variations on lithium-ion chemistry that sacrifice energy and power density to provide fire resistance, environmental friendliness, very rapid charges (as low as a few minutes), and very long lifespans. These variants (phosphates, titanates, spinels, etc.) have been shown to have a much longer lifetime, with A123 expecting their lithium iron phosphate batteries to last for at least 10+ years and 7000+ charge cycles,[8] and LG Chem expecting their lithium-manganese spinel batteries to last up to 40 years.[citation needed]

Much work is being done on lithium ion batteries in the lab.[9] Lithium vanadium oxide has already made its way into the Subaru prototype G4e, doubling energy density. Silicon nanowires,[10][11] silicon nanoparticles,[12] and tin nanoparticles[13][14] promise several times the energy density in the anode, while composite[15][16] and superlattice[17] cathodes also promise significant density improvements.